Computational modeling of coupled blood-wall mass transport of LDL: Effects of local wall shear stress.
The work herein represents a novel approach for the modeling of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) transport from the artery lumen into the arterial wall, taking into account the effects of local wall shear stress (WSS) on the endothelial cell layer and its pathways of volume and solute flux. We have simulated LDL transport in an axisymmetric representation of a stenosed coronary artery, where the endothelium is represented by a three-pore model that takes into account the contributions of the vesicular pathway, normal junctions, and leaky junctions also employing the local WSS to yield the overall volume and solute flux. The fraction of leaky junctions is calculated as a function of the local WSS based on published experimental data and is used in conjunction with the pore theory to determine the transport properties of this pathway. We have found elevated levels of solute flux at low shear stress regions because of the presence of a larger number of leaky junctions compared with high shear stress regions. Accordingly, we were able to observe high LDL concentrations in the arterial wall in these low shear stress regions despite increased filtration velocity, indicating that the increase in filtration velocity is not sufficient for the convective removal of LDL.Download Article